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An Exclusive Profile of Sandra Steingraber: A Biologist, a Journalist, an Activist, a Mother

What: This is the second article for my senior project for Ithaca College’s Writing Department. The introduction can be found here, and my first article about the New York Youth Against Fracking can be found here.

Originally Written: Primarily the end of last semester (April and May).


Standing before the judge in the Reading Town Court, Sandra Steingraber is strong, but visibly nervous. The date is April 17th. Her posture is a little forced – after seeing her speak at many rallies, I know that she usually stands straight on her own, but now I see her posture faltering a little, against her will. She seems uncertain in this environment. Clearly, she is out of her element, but for an author, mother, and an Ithaca College professor with a PhD in Biology, that isn’t a real surprise.

A resident of Trumansburg, New York at 53 years old, Sandra Steingraber is also one of the most well-known anti-fracking activists, next to Mark Ruffalo (actor), Josh Fox (director of Gasland), and Yoko Ono and Sean Lennon (musicians and creators of Artists Against Fracking.) Last April, Rolling Stone Magazine named her the “Toxic Avenger” for her work, and last Earth Day, she was named as one of two of Bill McKibben’s Earth Day Heroes. (Bill McKibben is a widely respected environmental author, journalist, and the founder of the climate change organization,


Sandra Steingraber is a member of the Seneca Lake 12, a group of twelve central New York activists who allowed themselves to be arrested while blockading an Inergy, LP facility in Reading, New York on March 18. Inergy, a natural gas company, wanted to store massive amounts of highly explosive natural gas liquids, including liquefied propane gas, methane, and butane, in the salt caverns under Seneca Lake. In other states, this practice has led to explosions and collapses of the salt caves. If this were to happen at Seneca Lake, the surface and groundwater would be contaminated, polluting the drinking water of over 100,000 people. Oh, and as an aside, one of these caverns sits on a fault line.

All of the aforementioned chemicals – liquefied propane gas, methane, butane, and other explosive natural gas liquids – are the byproducts of fracking. By Inergy’s own admission, we know that the corporation is looking to create a strategically positioned Northeast hub of natural gas storage and transportation. It just so happens that they want that hub to be located in Watkins Glen, New York, next to Reading. [Note: Since the writing of this article, Inergy has updated their website to exclude this language. It was also included in a press release, referred to here by Gas Free Seneca.]

Although there is a two year moratorium against hydraulic fracturing in New York state, there is not a moratorium barring companies from building facilities that will support the industry in other ways – for example, Inergy’s desire to store these fracking-related chemicals in the Finger Lakes region.

Sandra Steingraber and the eleven other members of the Seneca Lake 12 were not alone in their protest. Earlier that day, there was a rally of over 250 people who opposed the facility, the expansion of the natural gas industry, the potential public health risk that the facility would pose, and more. What made the Seneca Lake 12 unique, however, was that they chose to blockade the entrance to the facility in Watkins Glen after the rally.

Local police arrested each of the 12 protestors for trespassing on Inergy, LLC’s property. Each of protestor was given the choice of paying a fine ($375), or go to jail for 15 days and pay a smaller fine (a state surcharge of $125).

During her hearing, Steingraber chose to go to jail: otherwise, she said, “If I pay the fine, I’ll be awarding the community for having this facility there, and for arresting me and the others. They’ll make thousands of dollars from our acts of civil disobedience, and I don’t think the community should profit from that.”

Before the judge decided her sentence, Steingraber read a prepared statement. In it, she explained the various biological and health risks that would occur with the installation of the Inergy facility. She made special note of the concept of toxic trespass – the biological concept that refers to “the involuntary human exposure to a chemical or other pollutant,” according to her statement. She also called upon her own personal background as a cancer survivor and mother of a son who has a history of asthma. What’s more, she gave birth to her son in Watkins Glen: not only was she protecting the environment and the local citizens from pollution, but she was also protecting the birth place of her son so that he could visit it in the future.

“In closing, my actions were taken to protest the trespass of Inergy into our air, water, bodies, safety, and security,” said Steingraber. “My small, peaceful act of trespass was intended to prevent a much larger and possibly violent one.”

The court room for the hearing was filled to capacity: 49 people, with many more standing outside the room’s large wooden doors. Almost everyone there was present to show support for Steingraber and the two other activists who were facing trial that night.

By the end of her speech, there were many sighs and sniffles in the room as people became gradually more emotional. I looked around and saw glassy eyes, frowns, and trembling lips on the activists around me.

“To bring attention to such hazards for the Finger Lakes – and for the act of protecting water, which is life itself – I trespassed,” said Steingraber at the conclusion of her statement. Her voice was became strained with emotion. “It was an act of civil disobedience. For that, and because I have deep respect for the rule of law, which Inergy company does not, I am willing to go to jail.”

[To read the statement in full, click here.]

The judge paused. He was elderly and bore chiseled wrinkles in his face. He offered a stark contrast to Steingraber, in a graceful plum dress and pearls; he wore his judge’s robes with harsh authority.

Evidently, the statement had taken him by surprise. There was a second during which the room held its breath, wondering if he would reduce Steingraber’s sentence, when he made up his mind.

“You will be sentenced to fifteen days in jail. Thank you.”


In the fall of 2009, Steingraber was invited to talk in a symposium at Cornell University about fracking. Although she had barely heard of the practice, her expertise was in some of the chemicals involved and their effects on human health. She prepared her research and attended the panel.

“When I heard what everyone else was talking about, it just seemed to click in my mind. I was like, ‘This is insane!’ I mean, really? We’re turning the earth inside out! We’re blowing it up! I could see 1,000 ways that this could be bad for public health. I was like, ‘How did I not know about this?’”

She soon realized that natural gas was connected to her previous activism to advocate safer laws in the handling and use of toxic chemicals – for example, a ban on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, most often referred to simply as “vinyl.” Natural gas is used to create many of these toxic chemicals, and if there is a boom in natural gas production, then there would be a parallel boom in the farming of these chemicals.

After learning about fracking, she began to see how common it was – and how much it could potentially affect the lives of her and her family. She learned that 40% of the land in Tompkins County had already been leased to natural gas companies, including land immediately surrounding her home. This made her worried for her children’s safety, within good reason.

“Each one of these well heads vents all kinds of carcinogens,” said Steingraber. “They’re basically chimneys in the earth.”

In 2011, Steingraber traveled for two months with her family to work on research about hydraulic fracturing. She happened to be in Salt Lake City as Tim DeChristopher was scheduled for sentencing at a local courthouse. DeChristopher is an anti-fracking activist and co-founder of the organization Peaceful Uprising, a nonprofit dedicated to fighting climate change with nonviolent action. Three years previous, he had committed an act of civil disobedience to successfully halt natural gas operations at a nearby site.

Out of curiosity, Steingraber decided to attend the trial and watched as he was taken away in chains. He was sentenced to 21 months in prison. (Incidentally, DeChristopher is Bill McKibben’s other Earth Day Hero of this year.)

A few days later, Steingraber received a call from the Heinz Foundation notifying her that she had won the Heinz Award for her life’s work as a biologist, journalist and author. As part of this award, Steingraber received $100,000 – which she donated entirely to the anti-fracking movement in New York state because she was so moved by Tim DeChristopher’s activism.

“I had just seen this anti-fracking advocate [DeChristopher] pay this huge price,” said Steingraber. “[Donating the money] seemed like such a small sacrifice after that.”

Most of the money was used to form “New Yorkers Against Fracking,” a large coalition of non-profits and businesses that are allied in their resistance against fracking. Currently, there are over 200 member organizations and over 1,000 member businesses involved with the organization. Steingraber still sits on their Advisory Committee with Lois Gibbs (environmental activist), Natalie Merchant (musician), and Mark Ruffalo (actor).

Steingraber also donated a smaller amount of the money to associated nonprofits in New York: for example, Citizen Action, a grassroots nonprofit that tackles many major issues in the state such as health care, racial justice, and hydraulic fracturing. Steingraber’s donation enabled talented individuals like Isaac Silberman-Gorn to become directly involved in the anti-fracking movement. At 23, Silberman-Gorn is an organizer with Citizen Action, a nonprofit public activist group, and works in their anti-fracking campaign in New York’s Southern Tier.

“[Steingraber] has this background as a biologist,” said Silberman-Gorn. “knowing this incredibly hard science, and then she’s this brilliant speaker – and a really good strategist, too, which I think she’s developed over the past few years as being one of the spokespeople for [New Yorkers Against Fracking]. She’s absolutely phenomenal to work with.”

Since donating the money from the Heinz Award, Steingraber’s life has been a whirlwind of activism. She is most well-known in the anti-fracking universe for her speeches at rallies and other events. Her speeches are often regarded as memorable based on their seemingly effortless weaving of Steingraber’s biological and personal background.

“She says what needs to be said in a beautiful way, frankly,” said Silberman-Gorn. “Everyone I know who has heard her speak has nearly been moved to tears. She’s an unbelievable speaker. In terms of putting things out, laying things out in this beautiful, poetic way – she’s absolutely one of a kind.”

Because of this style, the Sierra Club has called Steingraber the “new Rachel Carson,” and she received the Rachel Carson Leadership Award in 2001. It’s actually all very fitting, as Steingraber herself has cited Rachel Carson as being her biggest influence and role model in her work.

The similarity between both Rachel Carson and Sandra Steingraber is clear: both came from a background in the sciences to write about an environmental problem that poses a huge risk to human health. They both do so in beautiful, poetic language, that is still ultimately rooted in a clear and concise explanation of science. And, lastly, both were diagnosed with cancer: Rachel Carson with breast cancer, and Sandra Steingraber with bladder cancer.

When Steingraber was 20 years old and still in college, she was diagnosed with bladder cancer. Although her cancer is in remission, being a cancer survivor still affects her life today.

According to one of her best friends, Jan Quarles, her cancer diagnosis has made her appreciate her life. Quarles and Steingraber have been friends for 16 years, and Quarles has helped to take care of Steingraber’s children for many years. Their bond is so deep that Quarles was present while Steingraber gave birth to her son. Quarles, who lives near Sheldrake Point, NY, is also an anti-fracking activist. She is the chairperson of Back to Democracy, a nonprofit organization that promotes citizen empowerment and education in issues surrounding social justice, clean energy, sustainability, and other progressive topics. With Steingraber’s cancer diagnosis, Quarles notes, came the expectation that she wouldn’t live past a few years.

“She feels that every single day she gets is a bonus day,” said Quarles. “She doesn’t assume that she’s going to have more days. Each day that she’s alive and she wakes up, she says, ‘This is great, I have one more day where I can help work at this.’”

Besides, as a biologist, Steingraber is fully aware of the potential health risks from environmental toxins. (She received her PhD in Biology from the University of Michigan.) She wrote her 1997 book, Living Downstream: An Ecologist Looks at Cancer and the Environment, about her personal investigation into the potential causes of her cancer. She learned that there were solvents and other carcinogens that had leached into the local water supply from a local dry cleaner in her home town; although it’s impossible to tell if this caused her cancer, it does stand out as a strong possibility. (As an aside, Living Downstream was also released as a feature-length documentary in 2010.)

The legalization of hydraulic fracturing has reportedly caused similar health problems in individuals living near the fracking facilities. So, to say that Steingraber has a personal connection to the fracking movement is not an overstatement.

This isn’t her only connection to the movement, though – when she was an infant, Steingraber was adopted by her parents, the details of which have been hidden from her by the state of Illinois for the majority of her life. This secret has impacted her worldview dramatically. Steingraber was born in 1959, and was adopted by her parents shortly after her birth. She grew up in central Illinois. Her mother had also studied biology in college, but given the time period, she wasn’t legally allowed to be a full-time adoptive mother and an employed researcher. It was emotionally hard for her to give up her passion, but she became a “knowledgeable housewife” whose love of the natural world left a marked influence on Steingraber and on her own biological studies.

However, despite Steingraber’s bond with her parents, learning that she was adopted was still very difficult for her.

During 1959, it was Illinois state practice to seal away the original birth certificate and adoption papers of an adopted child. These records were pulled from the public record and a new, fake birth certificate was put in their place, claiming that the child’s adoptive parents gave birth. (This was the only time that it is legal to put a falsified document in the public record.) It was only recently that Illinois opened the original records so that adopted children could get a copy of their original birth certificate.

Learning about this practice and her adoption made Steingraber adamant about secrecy and its dangers. Of course, there is a direct correlation between secrets and the anti-fracking fight; the success of the industry is built on secrets, many of which are state sanctioned. For example, natural gas companies are exempt from almost all federal environmental statutes so they are not obligated to report their toxic emissions; they call it a “trade secret.” Additionally, natural gas companies sign nondisclosure agreements with many individuals whose land they lease. These agreements forbid people to discuss any part of their lease (or the fracking on their land, or contamination, or health problems that have arisen since the start of the process). Lastly, doctors in Pennsylvania are not allowed to discuss the possible chemicals to which their patients have been exposed. This goes further than doctor-patient confidentiality: the doctor is not allowed to discuss this information, even in the most general sense, with coworkers, the public health department, or the media.

“As an adoptee, it’s the job of the state to protect us,” said Steingraber, “whether that means finding a home for an abandoned child, or keeping the rapers and pillagers of industry out, preventing them from using our land as their factory floor, blowing up our bedrock, using our water as a club to smash the shale apart, filling our air with toxic hazardous air pollutants that then get inside of our bodies – it’s the job of the government to say no to that sort of stuff. Fracking is a failure of government.”


“Today is a pretty hectic day,” Steingraber said to me at the beginning of our interview. “I’m trying to get everything prepared before I go to jail, and I’m going to see my daughter in The Tempest tonight.”

Steingraber is a mother of two: Faith, a fourteen year old girl, and Elijah, an eleven year old boy. Because she’s so busy, her husband, Jeff, a sculptor, has taken on many responsibilities to care for the family while Steingraber is working. She says that her husband and kids are generally very supportive of her activism, although they have had to learn how to “share me with the world.” Despite her work, Steingraber tries to spend time with her children as often as possible. She uses running as a method to clear her mind and work through writing obstacles, and when her son asked her to run a 5k marathon with him, she couldn’t refuse.

However, she learned later that there was a critical conference call that she needed to listen in on, about an upcoming fracking event. She couldn’t disappoint her son, but she couldn’t miss this call, either.

“Obviously, I didn’t win the race,” said Steingraber. “But I was just jogging along, talking on speaker phone and looking like a crazy lady.”

She has also brought her kids to events where she was scheduled to appear. One notable story took place a year ago, shortly after New York’s Governor Cuomo held a yogurt summit to boost dairy production in the state. In response, Steingraber and other researchers and activists held a press conference to connect the inherent issue between legalizing fracking and encouraging farming: it’s impossible to frack an area and then safely use it for food production.

That day, Steingraber brought her children to the press conference to spend time with them and to take them to a museum afterward. After the press conference, there was a rally where dancing activists, dressed in cow suits, held signs that said, “Don’t frack our cows!”

Capital police surrounded and addressed one woman; we don’t know what they said to her, but in response, she took off her cow costume and laid it on the ground to look like a dead cow. The police then came up to Steingraber, thinking that she was the leader of the crowd, and told her that to remove the costume because it was a fire hazard. Steingraber decided to put the costume on instead; it was a better alternative than providing the media an image of her submitting to the police, folding the cow costume and putting it into a box.

“So I picked it up and put it on,” said Steingraber, laughing, “and I picked up the chant – ‘Don’t kill the cows!’ – and joined the chorus line of other cows. But I could see my daughter in the background and I could just tell, she was like, ‘She is not my mom.’ She wouldn’t talk to me for the rest of the day.”

While at home, Steingraber does her best to make time for her children – even going so far as to cuddle with them for a few minutes every night before they go to sleep. These moments, she says, are when children are at their most vulnerable and are likely to talk about their thoughts or what has been bothering them throughout the day.

While Steingraber was sent to jail, Elijah was, of course, very upset. (Faith was on a class trip to Costa Rica for almost the entire time her mother was in jail.) However, it seems that he is quickly learning from his mother; when he woke up the next morning, he wrote letters to Steingraber and to the editor of his local newspaper about his mother’s imprisonment.

“I think we should all follow Elijah’s lead in that regard,” said Quarles. “instead of feeling depressed about all of the problems of society, we should all take action just like Elijah did, and we’ll all feel better.”


Despite all of her work in activism, Steingraber considers herself to be a writer foremost. She has published six books and is working on another – although she couldn’t discuss the content of it yet.

Her role as a writer was what prompted her to deliver a series of four letters while she was in jail, each released close to and on Earth Day. These letters, she said, were inspired by Martin Luther King’s famous letter from Birmingham Jail. Steingraber’s first letter (in two parts, here and here) was addressed to a general audience; the second to environmental leaders; the third to fellow cancer survivors; and the fourth to fellow mothers. In each letter, Steingraber used her unique position in each of these roles to tell her story to these various audiences about the dangers of hydraulic fracturing and the Inergy facility.

While Steingraber served her time in jail, Quarles organized nightly vigils for those imprisoned (which included her husband, Michael Dineen), scheduled a press conference, and coordinated seemingly countless media interviews. Despite Steingraber’s success, she doesn’t have an executive assistant.

A large goal in getting arrested was that Steingraber wanted to attract media attention to the Inergy facility. She has certainly done so; before her trial, she was invited for an hour long interview with Bill Moyers on Moyers & Company. While in jail and after she was released on April 25, she inspired several letters to newspaper editors, including one from Adelaide Park Gomer, a trustee at the prestigious Park Foundation in Ithaca, New York. She hosted a talk at Ithaca College where she is the Distinguished Scholar in Residence in their Department of Environmental Studies and Sciences. The talk, titled, “The Scientist in Cell Block D: Thoughts on fracking infrastructure, extreme energy and civil disobedience,” attracted so many students that it filled the lecture hall. And, on May 9, the Women’s Environmental Institute named Steingraber the 2013 “Mother of the Environmental Movement.”

These are only some of the successes that have occurred since Steingraber’s release from jail. Although the Inergy facility hasn’t been closed down, Steingraber, and the eleven others who were arrested in protest of it, have significantly raised awareness about the issue. Because of this, it is far more likely that the facility and company will be held under far more public scrutiny than they would be otherwise.

Despite all of this, Steingraber will not rest. During our interview, she told me that she usually stays up all night at least twice a week; when you feel like your work is the most important work in the world, she told me, sleep becomes far less important. Her goals are so large that she needs as much time as she can get to tackle them. Steingraber doesn’t want to only close Inergy’s facility; she’s far more ambitious than that. Steingraber wants a national ban on fracking.

Listening to her, I believe entirely that we can reach that goal. With someone as dedicated, intelligent, graceful, and talented as Steingraber working for the anti-fracking cause, we have (at the very least) a fighting chance of banning fracking in New York, if not the United States. Then, of course, there are the thousands of people she has inspired through her work and speeches who are just as passionate as she is about the cause.

Sandra Steingraber is a biologist, a journalist, an activist, and a mother. But she is also an immensely humble leader who is trying to save the world, one rally and one book at a time.


 For anyone interested, you can learn more about Sandra Steingraber at her homepage and her Facebook page.

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New York Youth Against Fracking: True Student Activists

What: This is the first actual article (after my introduction) for my senior project for Ithaca College’s Writing Department. The introduction can be found here and my second piece, a profile about Sandra Steingraber, can be found here.

Originally Written: Primarily the middle of last semester (March-ish), finished at the end of the semester.


When most people refer to “student activists,” it isn’t uncommon to assume that they are discussing college students. However, the New York Youth Against Fracking has started to challenge that stereotype.

The New York Youth Against Fracking (NYYAF) was created at the combined public middle and high school, Lehman Alternative Community School, in Ithaca, New York. The school provides “alternatives to traditional curriculum and school governance philosophies,” according to the school’s website. For example, one way that it does this is by offering students a more open education with teacher evaluations instead of grades.

The school offers “all school meetings,” which are open assemblies where, as a unit, the students and staff discuss proposals brought forth by the school community. These meetings are an integral backbone to the structure of the school; they occur weekly and give students the opportunity to voice their opinions and influence the future of their education and environment. Not to mention that these meetings give students experience firsthand in a participatory democracy.

Students also participate in the running of Lehman Alternative Community School (LACS) through the school’s committees. These committees are comprised of students who make decisions about how the school is run, but on a more focused basis than that of the all-school meetings. For example, LACS has student committees for the curriculum, eco-action, gay/straight alliance, mediation, school modification (ex. artwork for the school), and more.

Its structure of shared-decision making isn’t the only thing alternative about LACS, though: there is also strong support for sustainability. Near the school’s front doors, there is a mural depicting a sun that says “LACS Solar Power: Renewable, Sustainable.” (The school has a small solar bank, although students want to increase the number of panels.) Inside the school, there are many fliers in the hallways asking passers-by to “Protect the planet, don’t waste paper,” and “Have you recycled or composted everything you can?” Then, there are paintings: around the school are many student-created murals and one of the first ones that visitors see coming into the school features the Earth and the quote, “We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.”

As I walked into LACS for my first NYYAF meeting in March, these signs and murals were the first things that I noticed. Before college, I had attended a Catholic elementary/middle school and another Catholic high school. In the first, I think we had bulletin boards where some kids could display their art from art class. The small step-by-step arts and crafts projects paled in comparison to the elaborate murals that decorated the walls inside of LACS. In the second school, my high school, there were more bulletin boards and another display case with art that was of a higher caliber than my middle school art classes but, still, nothing compared to the murals. Otherwise, the boards held notices and service trip information. And that was it.

Then, of course, the idea of either of my schools’ administrations giving students any sort of power in decision-making was laughable. My schools were based on rules and a top-down power structure, while LACS is the opposite; its policies and curriculum are decided by students in a vertical power structure. By all means, it seems to be successful, at least from my visits to the school. The students were happy, passionate, and intelligent. What more could we ask from middle and high school kids?

Coming into LACS, for the first time, was simultaneously amazing and overwhelming. After having a somewhat conservative schooling as my pre-college background, it was fantastically gratifying for me to see a school’s commitment to the same ideas that I now care about so deeply – the ideas of environmental activism, sustainability, and a participatory democracy. I assumed that there were probably schools other than colleges that taught these ideals as well but I had never found one. Until now.

Despite the progressive nature of LACS, the students seemed like fairly normal tweens and teens, as far as I could tell. They wore t-shirts, hooded sweatshirts, the usual. They stood and moved with the typical awkwardness and self-awareness that plagues youth. At 21, they made me feel old and immeasurably disconnected from my mid-teen self.

That feeling increased as I entered the NYYAF meeting. Most of the students were in middle school or very early high school (I learned later that some of the older students were attracted to some of the other environmental causes in the school). There were easily over a dozen kids there and I soon realized that there were many others who were involved, either directly or indirectly, but who were not at that meeting.

And still, my awe of the students continued – the room was full of energy, passion, optimism. Being young, they fired through ideas and topics faster than anyone could keep up with the meeting’s agenda; unlike so many other students, they genuinely believed that they could make a difference.

“What’s really surprised me about all of this is how much people are listening to us, just because we’re not all stuffy and grown-up,” said Jacob Friga, a student at LACS. “There are a lot of people who are just really interested in what we’re doing, and I think that’s really neat.”

When I first saw Jacob Friga during the NYYAF meeting, I noticed him because of the shirt that he was wearing: it said The Raconteurs, a reference to an indie-band most well-known for their song, “Steady, As She Goes.” He had long hair and a wiry build, and I already felt like he was cooler than some of my friends in college. That feeling only amplified when he told me that he could play piano, clarinet, bass, guitar, drums, mandolin, and saxophone. He said all of this casually, like it was no big deal that he could play seven instruments.

Jacob is in 9th grade and his favorite subject, besides music, is math. He became drawn into the fracking controversy when he learned that many of his neighbors in Caroline, New York, had already leased their land to natural gas companies to be used for hydraulic fracturing. Wanting to be informed about the issue, Jacob began to research fracking, starting with informational brochures that his parents brought home and eventually culminating in his participation in NYYAF.

These are normal kids, but they have a unique gift: they have adults listening to them. They are taking responsibility in a movement that they care deeply about; in doing so, they can easily garner an audience because of their age alone. Of course, it helps that they all know what they’re talking about.

“The population in Ithaca would drop a lot,” said Lila Zusman, another student in LACS. We were discussing what it would be like in Ithaca if fracking were legalized in New York. “It would attract less tourists, it would be bad for the colleges, and also for the farms and local businesses that are unique to Ithaca. The water and lake would also get really messed up. It would be awful.”

At first glance, Lila Zusman looks like any other girl in 7th grade. She wears jeans, brightly colored hoodies, and a winter hat designed to have an owl’s eyes and nose sitting on her forehead.

That is, until I look closer. The hat is her giveaway: around the owl’s eyes are buttons for social causes I didn’t even know existed when I was her age. There’s a blue pin with a peace sign, another which says “Organic Believer,” another that is the classic “no fracking” logo with fissures coming out of the text.

“I always liked to be with nature and playing outside,” said Lila. “And then I realized that if they frack in New York, that won’t be there anymore, or at least it won’t be as nice outside.”

In the beginning of this past school year, NYYAF was initially created with a fairly open goal created by the students involved: to learn about the issue. It was founded by Mariah Prentiss, NYYAF’s facilitator and a teacher-librarian at the school for three years. Incidentally, the club is available for students to take for credit and to participate in during the school week. Part of the school’s curriculum asks students to complete a service work requirement. In other words, on Tuesdays and Thursdays students will work on four projects of their choosing, led by a faculty member. Most of the projects are not issue based; they focus on experiential learning, including creative writing, sports, crafts, theatre, and so on.

This is where NYYAF comes in. Prentiss said that she didn’t know how interested students would be in a fracking project.

“I’ve offered things before that only appealed to a small number of people. I tried to do a few writing projects, like National Public Radio’s StoryCorps, but it didn’t get a lot of interest. So I put out a description about an anti-fracking project, and this big group came to the first meeting, and it was like, ‘Wow, this is really powerful.’”

Prentiss worked with these students to determine what they wanted to do with the project. Initially, it wasn’t the “New York Youth Against Fracking” – they were just a group of students dedicated to learning about this controversial practice. To do so, they would bring materials in every week and discuss, together, what fracking was, what it could potentially lead to, and the concerns that lay on each side of the issue.

The students began by watching Gasland, the 2010 classic anti-fracking documentary exploring the complications raised by hydraulic fracturing in Pennsylvania – complications that include soil and air pollution, flammable water, and severe (sometimes fatal) health problems. The kids invited speakers to their class, including John McNamara from Finger Lakes Clean Waters Initiative, a local nonprofit organization that seeks to protect “New York’s number one economic resource,” according to their website.

They hosted a viewing of the film Dear Governor Cuomo to their classmates and other students in the area. Dear Governor Cuomo provided a lens into an event in Albany that featured a mix of scientists, musicians, and activists who were all protesting Governor Cuomo’s lifting of the hydraulic fracturing moratorium in New York State. The film, made in 2012, is a “concert protest film,” according to its website.

After the film, the LACS students organized workshops for the kids to go to, led by many important figures within the anti-fracking movement and local politicians, including Dr. Sandra Steingraber, Mayor of Ithaca Svante Myrick, and speakers from the New York Green Umbrella, a coalition of New York college students who are environmental activists. (I’m just saying, having been semi-politically intrigued at their age, I would have loved an opportunity like this when I was in middle or school.)

After all this, they finally chose their project’s name: the New York Youth Against Fracking.

At LACS, each service work project is either renewed or ends after each quarter of the school year. By the time the second quarter came, the administration had renewed NYYAF as a project, and the students felt like they were ready for action. While the first quarter had been spent primarily on educating themselves, the second and third quarters were marked by their desire to do something about the issue that they had begun to realize had such huge consequences for their state, for the state of Pennsylvania, and for their future.

During this time, New York’s moratorium against hydraulic fracturing had expired and Governor Cuomo was deciding how the state should respond: should fracking should be legalized or banned, or should be granted another moratorium. In response, the NYYAF attended the State of the State rally in Albany, New York, on January 9, 2013. That rally occurred outside of the Governor’s annual State of the State address, with over 1,500 anti-frackers in attendance.

“I think that was life-changing for some of the kids,” said Prentiss. “They went from being cool, quite outspoken kids to shouting and totally, totally into it. They were just so empowered. It was really beautiful.”

Next, the kids filmed a music video for the song, “You’ve Been Fracked.” The song, written by the local activist Edith McCrea, was recorded by kids involved in NYYAF, both at LACS and neighboring schools. What is so charming about the video is that it features the students earnestly singing with a backing band of older adults and another student in a small studio in Ithaca. Clearly, the kids are having fun: this is evident as the video is interspliced with the kids performing various theatrics. For example, two girls, representing gas companies, ask some of the other students to sign a piece of paper. After doing so, the kids fall over and mime getting sick, and in one case, one student – Lila – pretended to die, presumably from the water pollution of fracking chemicals. The two girls acting as the gas company look at each other uncomfortably and leave quickly.

“Making the video was super duper duper fun,” said Lila.

NYYAF entered the video in an Artists Against Fracking contest sponsored by Yoko Ono and Sean Lennon. Competing against nearly 100 other videos, submitted by other schools, professionals, businesses, and non-profits, NYYAF won the contest, and a lunch with Ono and Lennon at a date that is still to be decided.

Following shortly after their victory, the kids were invited on to Nick News (on the television channel, Nickelodeon) to discuss their cause. This was part of the Nick News segment, “What’s the Deal with Fracking?” The 22-minute segment explained what fracking was and why there is so much controversy about the issue, interviewing both industry professionals, researchers, and other preteens and teenagers who have been impacted by fracking.

“I actually watched that episode after it aired,” said Jacob. “It was pretty difficult for me to see the pro-fracking side. I didn’t think they were very well-represented – or maybe they were well-represented, and they were just wrong.”

And then, NYYAF attended another rally in Albany – this time, one that was more organized and had more parents helping. Their goal was to meet with the Governor before his deadline to decide on the future of fracking in New York. In the process, they worked with New York State Assemblywoman Barbara Lifton and Arun Manilal Gandhi, who is a renowned socio-political activist and also Gandhi’s grandson. Lifton represents Tompkins County in the state assembly – where LACS is located – and has been a staunch anti-fracking advocate in the government since 2009. The children led a march to the governor’s office where they met actor Mark Ruffalo and were featured in the background during the press conference. Ruffalo, although most widely known as an actor (The Hulk; The Kids Are All Right), is also a highly popular anti-fracking activist. He has been working for the cause since 2011 and has also helped Lifton in her reelection campaign: part of why he takes such an interest in these issues is because he is a resident of upstate New York.

“I got to shake Mark Ruffalo’s hand,” said Lila. “It was so cool. We got to stand behind all of them when they were on TV, too.”

From NYYAF’s Facebook photos

Since the third cycle, NYYAF’s activity has dwindled down a little – but not much. The fourth cycle is reserved for spring trips, so the typical NYYAF meetings wouldn’t be approved by the administration. Regardless, the students and Prentiss have continued to meet outside of class time, and walked in the Ithaca Festival parade in late May. And having a cycle off doesn’t mean that the kids are getting unmotivated – both Jacob and Lila responded enthusiastically to me when I asked if they wanted to be involved next year.

“Personally, I just want some way to express all of this emotion and have a chance to use all of this research,” said Jacob. “I also could say that I want to get a ban or moratorium on fracking in New York, but, I mean, realistically, who knows.”

Until they can get that ban or moratorium, their work won’t be done – but during the meeting I attended, the kids don’t seem to be daunted by the task. Despite Jacob’s practical perspective, the group as a whole seemed optimistic, hopeful, and ready to fight for a cause in which they truly believe.

From the outside looking in, I’m awed by these students. They are passionate, caring, and more knowledgeable about any controversial issue that I cared about when I was their age. If the “leaders of tomorrow” are our nation’s children, then I know that we’ll be in good hands if these kids are at the forefront of today’s battles.


For anyone interested, you can connect with New York Youth Against Fracking on Facebook.

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Hydraulic Fracturing Activism in the Finger Lakes Region – Introduction

What: The introduction to my senior project focusing on hydraulic fracturing activism in the Finer Lakes region. (The Finger Lakes region is where Ithaca College and Cornell University are located. It is named as such for its number of lakes which, on a map, appear to resemble fingers.)

Originally Written: January, edited at the end of the semester

Background: At Ithaca College, every student in the Writing department needs to complete a senior project to graduate. I chose to write a small collection of narrative articles related to hydraulic fracturing (or, fracking), as it was the most applicable to my outside studies and future career. (First semester of senior year, I interned at the Coalition to Protect New York, a New York-based anti-fracking nonprofit, and throughout last year I sat on the executive board of IC’s anti-fracking club, Frack Off!.)


Fracking, horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing: the terms themselves conjure a world of controversy for thousands of people in the American Midwest, South, and more recently, Northeast. For some, the phrases carry images of children becoming sick, animals developing cancer, and water catching on fire; others think of a struggling economy, steady employment, and the search for a new source of energy.

I entered the fracking debate in the middle of my sophomore year of college. I had just transferred from Emerson College to Ithaca College and, feeling like a freshman all over again, I was looking for friends and ways with which I could fill some free time. The Organization Fair was a great place to start both of those searches.

Although I’m a writing major, my interests extend far past narrative forms and literature. I’ve held an active passion for politics since high school which eventually focused specifically on environmentalism. Frankly, I’ve become invested in the movement based on what I have learned about it, not because of my personal experiences. Most students I’ve met who are interested in environmentalism grew up with a deep appreciation of nature, having spent most of their youth outside and learning about the outdoors. Me? I grew up in a low-income urban neighborhood in New Jersey. The closest I got to playing in a field was the artificially-grown baseball field that we used for softball games.

Regardless, as I studied various social movements, I eventually settled into environmentalism because I learned how high the stakes are. For example, climate change can (and most likely will) have devastating effects on our country and the rest of the world, resulting in food shortages, the spread of new diseases, mass migration, and more. I realized that it would be selfish of me to commit my time to any other movement, despite the possibility that other movements could be more interesting to me.

Because of this, I’ve had an active interest in environmentalism since high school. Since then, I’ve been far more likely to gravitate toward environmental clubs than writing or literature organizations. So, at the Organization Fair at Ithaca College, the first table that I stopped at was the Ithaca College Environmental Society. Next to it, though, sharing a table with them, was Frack Off!.

“Yo, if you’re signing up with ICES, you should sign up with Frack Off!” Behind Frack Off’s trifold – covered in diagrams and photos of the group’s members – were two boys who comically contrasted each other in height. It was the shorter one who had spoken to me, and next to him was a substantially taller boy.

“What’s fracking?”

At first, I almost regretted asking. There followed a long and tedious explanation of the process which I didn’t fully understand, but what came next – “Some people can light their water on fire because of the chemicals associated with fracking,” – caught my attention.

Needless to say, I signed up with the club based on that sentence alone. Now, I am on the executive board of Frack Off!, and although I consider myself fairly knowledgeable about the topic, I still feel like there is more that I need to learn. Unfortunately, the topic and practice is fairly complex.

It took me awhile to fully grasp how hydraulic fracturing works. Basically, fracking is a method to extract natural gas by drilling wells as far as 10,000 feet below the surface. The fracking company then sends a high-pressure mix of water, sand, and chemicals into the ground which causes the rock layer – outside of the well – to crack. Natural gas flows from the cracks in the earth into the well, where it comes up from the well where the fracking company can harvest it for fuel. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, America’s natural gas use comprises roughly 26% of all of its total energy consumption. Often, natural gas is used for heating and power generation.

With natural gas being such a staple in the American energy economy, I would have guessed that hydraulic fracturing would not pose an immediate threat to environmental or human safety. However, there are myriad issues surrounding fracking, and despite my involvement in the anti-fracking movement for two and a half years now, I feel like I’m still discovering more. For example, I’ve only recently learned of the possibility that the pressure of drilling and the disruption of the settled rock below the ground could lead to earthquakes.

Then there’s the possibility of the pipes leaking the chemical mixture, leading to the pollution of water streams and wells: what my classmates were referring to earlier.

In the northeast, the most extensive discussion about fracking has focused in Pennsylvania, where fracking is already allowed. Natural gas production has become extremely important in that state as it is above a large gas reservoir called the Marcellus Shale. The Shale also stretches into New York, where, as I write, there is more controversy as to whether the practice should be considered lawful in the state.

As a New Jersey resident, the dangers of fracking didn’t really hit me at first. Like I said, I only heard about fracking for the first time after I transferred to Ithaca College. This is mostly because the Marcellus Shale isn’t under New Jersey. Even after I transferred, though, and began to actively participate in the anti-fracking movement through Frack Off!, I still felt like an unaffected outsider. After all, there wasn’t going to be fracking in my home state, so I didn’t think that my home, family, and friends could possibly be impacted by the practice. Of course, I still cared, but I didn’t feel the immediacy that others I knew felt. I cared because the practice seemed harmful, but it was harmful to communities that felt far from my own. At the time, I didn’t think I had a reason to be more emotionally invested in the movement.

That changed when, in late 2011, there was some discussion among the governors of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware if fracking should be allowed near the Delaware River Basin. This Basin provides water for parts of each of those states, including New York City: or, in other words, for over 15 million Americans. As if this wasn’t driving the point home enough for me, the main rally against this decision was scheduled to be held in Trenton, my hometown and the capital of New Jersey.

Since then, fracking has become increasingly real to me. Even after the policy makers delayed the Delaware River Basin fracking decision indefinitely, I realized that this fight was something more than just a protest happening in my neighboring states that didn’t affect me. Although they didn’t frack the basin, I began to understand that fracking still affected me, and could affect me wherever I went by polluting air, water, and food. Not only that, but it would affect everyone I loved in the northeast just as much.

I am using this project as a learning process for myself, but also for my readers: I plan to cover various dimensions of the fracking issue, specifically in the Finger Lakes region, where Ithaca College is located. This area is rich in activism and research about the issue. My natural instinct is to first shed light on the various environmental issues that fracking causes, but also to better understand the opposing side. I am completely prepared to admit if (and when) I am wrong, and to leave my mind open to new ideas. If anything, I want to be wrong: I do not want to confront this potential horror that the environmental movement is currently facing. Not to mention that the potential benefits of fracking could be huge – an energy source cleaner than coal, jobs in a poor economy, and more. So, during this investigation, I plan to do everything I can to learn more about this controversy and to immerse myself in it further; I hope my readers will use my writing as a vehicle to do the same.

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